• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Predicting Suicidal Thoughts Based on Parental Psychological Control: The Mediating role of Mindfulness
        zahra eghdami Mahboubeh Fouladchang
        The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating role of mindfulness in the relationship between parental psychological control and suicidal ideation. Participants included 375 undergraduate students (204 girls and 171 boys) from Shiraz University who were sel Full Text
        The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating role of mindfulness in the relationship between parental psychological control and suicidal ideation. Participants included 375 undergraduate students (204 girls and 171 boys) from Shiraz University who were selected using multistage random cluster sampling. They completed the dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented psychological control scale, five facet mindfulness questionnaire, and beck scale for suicide ideation. Reliability of research instruments was determined by Cronbach's alpha and validity by confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency. The results of structural equation modeling showed that the proposed model fits well with the data of this study and that parental psychological control negatively predicts the dimensions of mindfulness. The findings also showed that parental psychological control has an indirect effect (through mindfulness) on suicidal thoughts. It is concluded that the parents' induction of shame and guilt in order to achievement or dependency of children can prevent mindfulness and then determine suicidal thoughts. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric symptoms in Iranian women and its relationship with difficulty in emotional regulation and change in the symptoms during corona virus
        Seyedeh Zahra Mousavi Razieh Khorramabadi
        The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in Iranian women, its relationship with difficulty in emotional regulation as well as women's attitudes toward menstruation and the change in the severity of premenstrual dysphori Full Text
        The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in Iranian women, its relationship with difficulty in emotional regulation as well as women's attitudes toward menstruation and the change in the severity of premenstrual dysphoric disorder and difficulty in emotion regulation during Covid 19 pandemic. The research method was descriptive-correlational and the statistical population was Iranian women of menstrual age in 2021, from which 287 people were selected. The research tools were demographic information form, difficulty in emotion regulation scale and premenstrual symptoms screening tool. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder were found to be higher than premenstrual syndrome, and most women considered menstruation to be normal for normal health. Symptoms were also unchanged during the Covid 19 Pandemic in most women. The highest frequency of severe premenstrual symptoms was related to fatigue/ lack of energy and the lowest frequency was related to insomnia. Based on regression analysis, difficulty in emotion regulation explained 16% of the changes in premenstrual symptoms and dimensions of difficulties engaging in goal-directed behaviors and lack of emotional clarity together explained 18% of the changes. Therefore, considering the predictive role of emotion regulation, designing interventions to regulate women's emotion may be able to reduce premenstrual symptoms. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Investigation of psychometric properties and factor structure of Persian version of the smartphone addiction scale
        شادی حاج حسینی Ladan Fata Ali Fathi-Ashtiani
        This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) in a sample of 208 Iranians. The convenience sampling method was employed to select individuals with smartphones living in Tehran. The participants completed the SAS and Yo Full Text
        This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) in a sample of 208 Iranians. The convenience sampling method was employed to select individuals with smartphones living in Tehran. The participants completed the SAS and Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Construct validity and convergence validity were employed to analyze the scale validity, whereas the retest method and Cronbach’s alpha were adopted to evaluate its reliability. According to the confirmatory factor analysis results of evaluating the construct validity and the SAS structure, the research data are consistent with the model. In other words, the fitting indices were within an appropriate range, and the SAS had a factor structure with six subscales. Therefore, the construct validity of the SAS was confirmed. Moreover, its convergence validity was confirmed with Young’s IAT (r= 0.75). The retest correlation coefficient (r= 0.93) and Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency (α= 0.92) confirmed the reliability of the scale. Therefore, the 33-item SAS had acceptable psychometric properties in six scales. It can be used as a valid and reliable tool to analyze an Iranian population. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - The Effectiveness of Pennsylvania Resilience Program Training on Academic Lifestyle Academic health preventing behaviors
        reza darabi mehdi arabzadeh hassan heidari hossein davoodi
        The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Pennsylvania resilience program training on academic lifestyle: academic health preventing behaviors. In this experimental quasi study with a pre-test-post-test and follow design, 50 undergraduate students of K Full Text
        The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Pennsylvania resilience program training on academic lifestyle: academic health preventing behaviors. In this experimental quasi study with a pre-test-post-test and follow design, 50 undergraduate students of Kharazmi university in two experimental and control groups before and after training, answered to the questionnaire of academic health behaviors including components of learned helplessness, avoidance of help seeking, aggression passively responded, academic procrastination, self-disability, effort avoidance, academic deception, maladaptive perfectionism. In 12 two-hour sessions, the experimental group received resilience training in a group manner. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance showed that resilience training program was effective in reducing the components of learned helplessness, avoiding help seeking, passive aggression, academic procrastination and academic deception. But avoidance of effort and perfectionism had no significant effects on the components of self-disability. Overall, the results of the present study show that the Pennsylvania resilience program was effective in reducing academic deterrent behaviors to help ensure the psychological immunity of learners in the face of the demands of academic life. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Investigating and comparing the development of cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence and spiritual ‎intelligence from adolescence to adulthood
        Marzieh Sadat Sajadinezhad Soghra Akbari Chermahini
        This study aimed to investigate the evolution of cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, and spiritual intelligence and compare the development of the three types of intelligence from adolescence to old age. This research is cross-sectional developmental researc Full Text
        This study aimed to investigate the evolution of cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, and spiritual intelligence and compare the development of the three types of intelligence from adolescence to old age. This research is cross-sectional developmental research design and descriptive method of a causal-comparative study. Participants in this study were 691 individuals living in Arak with an age range of 14-80 years were selected by random cluster sampling method, and answered Sohrabi and Naseri spiritual intelligence questionnaires, Bradbury-Graves Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, and the adult version of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test. The results of data analysis by two-way analysis of variance showed a significant difference between different age groups in terms of spiritual intelligence, but this difference was not significant in cognitive and emotional intelligence. Also, the interaction effect of type of intelligence and age group was significant. It can be concluded that the developmental process of cognitive, spiritual, and emotional intelligence over time from adolescence to old age is not the same, and perhaps in the final stages of life with the loss and decline of one of these intelligences can be seen another increase to compensate for the deficiency to solve life problems. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - model of structural relations between dimensions of personal and social identity elements and their effects on students of Tehran universities' national identity
        mohammad solgi
        The purpose of the present study was to investigate structural relations between dimensions of personal and social identity elements and their effects on students of Tehran universities' national identity. The research method was descriptive and correlational. two perso Full Text
        The purpose of the present study was to investigate structural relations between dimensions of personal and social identity elements and their effects on students of Tehran universities' national identity. The research method was descriptive and correlational. two personal identity questionnaires (Adams), known as "Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status" and a national and social identity questionnaire (prepared by the researcher) were used as research instruments. About 600 university students of Tehran City (17 universities as the statistical population of the research) were examined by these tests and finally, 524 true questionnaires (without error) were registered and analyzed in a data processing system, and then path analysis was used to analyze the data. The results showed that the model had the necessary fit and direct and indirect effects of dimensions of personal and social identity elements were significant on national identity (p<0.01) and considering national identity regardless of the elements of social and personal identity is a reductionist understanding. Accordingly, social policymakers are advised to consider the role of youth personal and social identity bases in trying to strengthen the national identity of students and to take practical intervention to strengthen these components. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Normalization of the Cognitive Questionnaire about Body and Health (cabah)
        maryam khadirzare فریده نرگسی farzad zandi alireza mokhberi
        Dysfunctional beliefs about illness and physical symptoms have been identified as risk factors for health anxiety. The Body and Health Cognitions Questionnaire (CABAH) is one of the most comprehensive tools for measuring health cognition. The aim of this study was to st Full Text
        Dysfunctional beliefs about illness and physical symptoms have been identified as risk factors for health anxiety. The Body and Health Cognitions Questionnaire (CABAH) is one of the most comprehensive tools for measuring health cognition. The aim of this study was to standardize Questionnaire 30 of this questionnaire in Iran. The number of samples in this study included 869 male and female students with health anxiety in Sanandaj Azad University, Kurdistan University and Khorramabad University of Medical Sciences who were selected by convenience sampling. Were evaluated. The validity of the questionnaire was obtained by Cronbach's alpha method and the construct validity was obtained by confirmatory factor analysis using Lizrel software. The Cronbach's alpha value of the whole questionnaire is 0.80, which indicates the appropriate internal consistency of the questionnaire. Also, the correlation between two parallel forms in the halving test for the CABAH questionnaire was 0.61, which is also acceptable. Therefore, in general, it can be said that the CABAH questionnaire has good reliability and can be used as a valid tool. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - The Role of Pathological Personality Traits, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Emotional Schemas in Predicting Personality Disorders of Cluster “B”
        Mohammad Valipour Behnaz Shid Anbarani Fatemeh Davoodi Hamidreza Aghamohamadian Shaerbaf Alireza Gol
        Due to the high prevalence of personality disorders and the change of personality disorder classification model in DSM-5, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of pathological (morbid) personality traits, early maladaptive schemas and emotional schemas i Full Text
        Due to the high prevalence of personality disorders and the change of personality disorder classification model in DSM-5, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of pathological (morbid) personality traits, early maladaptive schemas and emotional schemas in predicting B-Cluster personality disorders. This is a descriptive correlational study. The sample is 359 (230 females and 129 males) who were selected in access from the age range of 18-50 years in Mashhad. The research instruments were Personality Disorder Questionnaire (PDQ-4), DSM-5 Personality Questionnaire (PID-5), Early Maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire (YSQ) and Lay Emotional Schema Scale (LESS). Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis. The findings of this study showed that the variables of comprehensibility, disinhibition, consensus, antagonism, impaired limits and psychoticism are significantly capable of predicting antisocial personality disorder and the variables of comprehensibility, control, disinhibition, negative affectivity, rumination, numbness, simplistic view of emotion, blame and duration have significant predictive power of borderline personality disorder and variables of antagonism, guilt, blame, psychoticism, higher values and consensus significantly predict the narcissist personality disorder and variables of consensus, disinhibition, antagonism, negative affectivity, other-directedness, over-vigilance and detachment significantly predict the histrionic personality disorder. It can be concluded that morbid personality traits, early maladaptive schemas, and emotional schemas play a significant role in predicting personality disorders of cluster “B”. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        9 - The Modeling between Motivational strategies and Metacognitive self- regulation with peer-assisted learning in high school students
        kazem fathtabar mehrdad hamednia Milad Abedi Ghelich gheshlaghi
        The purpose of present study was identifying the relations between motivational strategies and metacognitive self- regulation with peer-assisted learning among high school students Amol. The statistical population was the 2950 persons of Amol high schools' students in s Full Text
        The purpose of present study was identifying the relations between motivational strategies and metacognitive self- regulation with peer-assisted learning among high school students Amol. The statistical population was the 2950 persons of Amol high schools' students in second ant thirst grade mathematics discourse. Among them selected 333 students as sample according to Cochran formula and multi cluster sampling. The research instrument was the part of Pintrich and et al. questionnaire containing motivational strategies, learning strategies and peer-assisted learning dimension. Data were analyzed with SPSS21and LISREL8.8. revealed that there is relation between the Motivational strategies subscales with peer-assisted learning statistically significance. there is relation between the metacognitive self- regulation subscales with peer-assisted learning statistically significance. A regression analysis revealed that share of value task, internal aim orientation, self- regulation and learning control belif in predicting peer-assisted learning students meaningful. But share of other variables were not significant in predicting peer-assisted learning. The results of path analysis showed that: Learning control belief, internal aim orientation and value task through variable of self- regulation has an indirect effect on peer-assisted learning, but self- regulation has a direct effect on peer-assisted learning students. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        10 - Teacher student relationship and help seeking: the mediating role of achievement goals and achievement motivation
        سمانه سادات موسوی شریف Zahra Naghsh sogand ghasemzadeh
        The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between help seeking and teacher student relationship with the mediating role of achievement goals and achievement motivation. The statistical population of this study were students of Tehran province who stu Full Text
        The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between help seeking and teacher student relationship with the mediating role of achievement goals and achievement motivation. The statistical population of this study were students of Tehran province who studied in the seventh and ninth grades in the academic year of 1398-99. The sample of this study were 317 boys and girls students that was chosen by multi-stage cluster sampling and all of them completed the Ryan and Pintrich questionnaire, Murray and Zurich’s teacher student relationship questionnaire, Herman’s achievement motivation questionnaire and Eliot and McGregor achievement goals. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and path analysis. The findings showed that the direct effect of teacher student relationship on achievement motivation and the direct effect of mastery approach on achievement motivation positive and significant. The direct effect of performance avoiding on the help seeking was negative and significant. The in directed effect of teacher student relationship on the help seeking by mediating of mastery approach and performance avoiding was positive and significant, and also the in directed effect of teacher student relationship on the help seeking by mediating of achievement motivation was positive and significant. The results of this study will be useful for education and higher education centers, especially for teachers, to increase the help seeking and teacher student relationship and also motivation among students. Manuscript Document