• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Developing of Self-Destructiveness Model, based on Ego-Development Level
        Ashraf Sadat Mousavi پرویز آزادفلاح حجت الله فراهانی
        The study was carried out to develop a theoretical and empirical model of self-destructiveness with an emphasis on the ego development, with the hypothesis that the ego development level can mediate the relationship between stress and perceived stress. 258 students resp More
        The study was carried out to develop a theoretical and empirical model of self-destructiveness with an emphasis on the ego development, with the hypothesis that the ego development level can mediate the relationship between stress and perceived stress. 258 students responded to the Washington University Sentences Completion Test (WUSCT), Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale (CSDS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Paykle Scaling of Life Events. Data were analyzed by SPSS-21 and LISREL-8.72, through Pearson correlation and the path analysis. Results showed an inverse relationship between self-destructiveness and ego development level. The sample was divided into high and low levels of ego development groups and the linear relation of stress, perceived stress, and self-destructiveness was investigated in both groups. Findings showed that all of the paths were significant and the model fit with the data. The CR was significant and indicated that there is a significant difference between the coefficients of the two groups with high and low levels of ego development. The path of “stressor → perceived stress” was stronger in persons with lower levels of ego development, as a high level of ego development, as a basic construct, can reduce the effect and amount of stress, before the perception of stress. Findings led to the development of a simple model which interprets stress or perceived stress merely as a reason for self-destructiveness tendencies. Ego development, as a basic indicator of character development, has a critical role in this model. These findings is useful in the treatment of persons with self-destructive tendencies. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Comparison of emotion-focused couple therapy and Guttman couple therapy On the marital compromise and the four horses that destroy the couple
        Leila Jafari Isaac Rahimian Boogar, Jamshid Jarareh علی تقوائی نیا
        The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of emotion-focused couple therapy and Guttman couple therapy on marital compromise and four destroyer equestrian horses. The research is applied in terms of purpose and its method is quasi-experimental of pre-test-p More
        The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of emotion-focused couple therapy and Guttman couple therapy on marital compromise and four destroyer equestrian horses. The research is applied in terms of purpose and its method is quasi-experimental of pre-test-post-test with control group. The statistical population of the study includes all couples referring to psychology and counseling centers under the supervision of the judiciary in Tehran in 2020-2021 couples in this project were divided into three groups of 14 (first recipient of emotion-focused couple therapy intervention); second experimental group (recipient of Guttman couple therapy intervention and control group) and randomly placed. To answer the hypotheses. The study used 1) Marital Adjustment Scale (Spanier (1976)) and the Four Horseman Work Questionnaire by Guttman et al. (2014). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and multivariate analysis of covariance and Duncan's post hoc test using computer software (SPSS) it placed. The results of this study indicate that Guttman couple and emotion-focused couple therapy had a significant effect on marital compromise, four destroyer equestrian horses; Also, the effect of Guttman couple therapy on marital reconciliation is more than the emotion-focused couple therapy and the effectiveness of these two treatments on the four horsemen of the destructive work is not significantly different. Considering the effect of these two treatments on marital reconciliation and four destructive equestrian horses, the use of these two interventions will be fruitful for couples referring to psychology and counseling centers. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        3 - perception of Parenting Styles and Thriving in Emerging Adulthood: The Mediating Role of Life- management strategies
        reyhane eskandari Elahe Hejazi zahra naghsh
        The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between perception of parenting styles and components of thriving with mediating role of life management strategies among emerging adulthood. A total of 487 Universities students 18-29 yerars old emerging adults More
        The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between perception of parenting styles and components of thriving with mediating role of life management strategies among emerging adulthood. A total of 487 Universities students 18-29 yerars old emerging adults responding a survey included the Inventory of the The questionnaire of perceived parenting practices (Grolnick et al., 1997) , Life-management strategies questionnaire (Geldhof et al., 2015) and Positive Youth Development Inventory (Arnold et al., 2012) volunteerly. Data were analaysed with structural equation model method and the results show the Perception of Parenting styles and Life-management strategies have positive significance effect on thriving. Furthermore the indirect effect of Perception of Parenting styles via mediating role of life management strategies on thriving is significant. As results indicated the model of Perception of mother predict 40% variation of thriving and the model of Perception of father 45% variation of thriving. In general our findings suggest that Perception of Parenting styles alongside individual variable can affect on thriving in emerging adulthood. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Psychometric Indices of Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale: A Factor for Predicting Students’ Academic Procrastination
        hamidreza hassanabadi seyed saeed torabi
        In the last few decades, sensation-seeking has been noticed as a complex, dynamic, and multidimensional personality trait that affects risky behaviors. The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the psychometric properties of Zuckerman's sensation seekin More
        In the last few decades, sensation-seeking has been noticed as a complex, dynamic, and multidimensional personality trait that affects risky behaviors. The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the psychometric properties of Zuckerman's sensation seeking scale among undergraduate students. Among the undergraduate students of Damghan city 260 people were selected by following the inclusion and exclusion criteria using a multi-stage random cluster sampling method in May 2020. Then, they responded to Zuckerman's (1971) sensation seeking, Pintrich and DeGroot (1990) self-efficacy and McCloskey and Silzo (2015) academic procrastination scales in the same order. The results showed that the four-factor structure of sensitivity to monotony, experience-seeking, adventure, and disinhibition of Zuckerman's sensation-seeking scale had a favorable fit with the data and their internal consistency reliability ranged from 0.61 for adventure to 0.78 for sensitivity. Correlation coefficients of sensation seeking subscales with self-efficacy scale to estimate divergent validity indicated non-significant and negative values in line with hypothesis confirmation. The findings of the step-by-step multiple regression also showed that the components of sensitivity to monotony and adventure could explain 27% of the variance of academic procrastination. It seems that the results of the present study provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the sensation-seeking scale as a strong tool for measuring the risky and sensation-seeking behaviors of adolescents by researchers, therapists, and counselors. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Investigating the Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Lay Beliefs about Competition Scale
        Mohsen Arbezi
        This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the lay beliefs about competition scale (Kesebir et al., 2019) in a group of Iranian high school students. For this purpose, 464 students of Evaz city, located in More
        This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the lay beliefs about competition scale (Kesebir et al., 2019) in a group of Iranian high school students. For this purpose, 464 students of Evaz city, located in the south of Fars province, who were studying in the academic year of 2022-2023; they were selected Convenience sampling method. They responded to the lay beliefs about competition scale (Kesebir et al., 2019) and achievement goals questionnaire (Elliott et al., 2011). The content, construct, convergent and divergent validity of the mentioned scale were investigated using the opinion of educational psychology experts, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, correlation coefficients of component scores with related variables and correlation between scale components. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to investigate the reliability of the scale. Experts confirmed the representativeness of the scale items to measure the positive and negative lay beliefs about competition in the two-factor model presented by Kesebir et al. (2019). Exploratory factor analysis showed that there is a two-factor structure of lay beliefs about competition including positive and negative beliefs about competition among Iranian students. The lay beliefs about competition model test includes positive beliefs and negative beliefs confirming the two-factor structure of this scale in line with the main research. Also, the logical connection of the components of positive and negative lay beliefs about competition with the components of achievement goals indicates the convergent validity of this scale. The average correlation of two positive and negative components of the lay beliefs about competition confirms the divergent validity of this scale. In addition, Cronbach's alpha coefficients confirm the reliability of the scale. In total, the findings of the research show that the Persian version of the mentioned scale has suitable psychometric indicators for measuring positive and negative lay beliefs about competition in the group of Iranian high school students; and it has the necessary efficiency to measure the mentioned beliefs. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Comparing Attentional Bias to Facial Expressions of Pain and Coping Styles between Individuals with Migraine and Controls
        Zahra Zarei Khatereh Borhani Farzad Ashrafi Setareh Mokhtari
        The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between different types of pain coping styles and attentional bias to facial expressions of headache in people with migraines. To this end, 44 individuals with migraine and 43 healthy controls in the age rang More
        The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between different types of pain coping styles and attentional bias to facial expressions of headache in people with migraines. To this end, 44 individuals with migraine and 43 healthy controls in the age range of 18 to 50 years were selected as a sample of this study through available sampling method. The materials that we used in this study were the “Coping styles” questionnaire and “Dot Probe task”. Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze the data. The results show in terms of coping styles, there was a significant difference between the two groups. The control group used avoidance and problem-oriented styles significantly more than the individuals in migraine group. no significant difference between attentional bias towards facial expressions of headache in people with migraines and healthy controls. This finding potentially indicates that information processing with pain content in these people is carried out without any biases and probably has no role in maintaining the disease. However, attention to pain coping styles should be considered in the treatment process and teaching effective coping techniques. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Design and test a model of personality relationship with corona dissease anxiety mediated by perceived stress and self-efficacy in adolescents
        Elahe Aslami Farzaneh  Khani Mehrabadi Azam  Tadayon
        This study aimed to investigate the relationship between personality traits and Corona disease anxiety by the mediating effect of perceived stress and self-efficacy among adolescents. Method: In this descriptive correlational study, the statistical population comprised More
        This study aimed to investigate the relationship between personality traits and Corona disease anxiety by the mediating effect of perceived stress and self-efficacy among adolescents. Method: In this descriptive correlational study, the statistical population comprised high-school students in Abarkooh (Iran), of whom 318 were selected via random cluster sampling. The Corona Disease Anxiety Scale (Alipour et al. 2019), the five-factor NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), The Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen et al. 1983), and The Self-Efficacy Scale (Sherer et al. 1982) were employed. The proposed model was evaluated by path analysis in AMOS and SPSS. Resalts: The results of direct hypotheses showed that agreeableness, conscientiousness and self-efficacy had a negative and inverse effect and perceived stress had a positive and direct effect on Corona disease anxiety. The results of the study of indirect hypotheses showed that conscientiousness had an indirect and inverse effect on corona disease anxiety mediated by stress and self-efficacy, and neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness had an indirect effect on corona disease anxiety through perceived stress. Conclusion: Therefore, it is possible to reduce the level of corona disease anxiety in adolescents by strengthening self-efficacy as a coping resource and teaching stress management to adolescents and their effect on neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness, and use the obtained results in therapeutic interventions. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        8 - Investigating the relationship between family communication patterns and academic vitality: The mediating role of self-regulated learning strategy
        محسن علیزاده Siruos Alipor Birgani Manijeh Shehniyailagh
        The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family communication patterns and academic vitality: the mediating role of self-regulated learning strategies. The research method was correlation and structural equations. Participants in this study More
        The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family communication patterns and academic vitality: the mediating role of self-regulated learning strategies. The research method was correlation and structural equations. Participants in this study were 240 ninth grade male students in Behbahan, who were selected by multi-stage (relative) random sampling. The instruments used in this study were a revised version of the Fitzpatrick and Ritchie family communication patterns, the Martin and Marsh Vital Life Questionnaire, and the Pintrich and De Groot self-regulatory, cognitive, and metacognitive learning strategies scale. Confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were used to evaluate the validity and reliability of these instruments. The evaluation of the proposed model was performed using the structural equation method. Bootstrap method was used to test indirect relationships. The results showed that the direction of dialogue has a direct positive and significant relationship with academic vitality and self-regulated learning strategies. Also, the orientation of dialogue with academic vitality through self-regulated learning strategies has a significant indirect relationship. But compliance orientation was not directly related to academic vitality and self-regulated learning strategies and this relationship was indirectly insignificant with the mediation of self-regulated learning strategies (cognitive and metacognitive) with academic vitality. Finally, self-regulated learning strategies have a significant relationship with academic vitality. Better fit of the model was achieved by eliminating non-significant paths of compliance orientation to academic vitality and compliance orientation to self-regulated learning strategies (cognitive and metacognitive). Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        9 - Comparing the Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatments on Sexual Desire Disorder in Men
        hossein ranjbar shayan Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei Amir Panah Ali
        Sexual desire disorder can be defined as a decrease in sensual feelings, thoughts and fantasies. The purpose of this research is to compare the effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and cognitive behavioral therapy on libido disorder in men. The resea More
        Sexual desire disorder can be defined as a decrease in sensual feelings, thoughts and fantasies. The purpose of this research is to compare the effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and cognitive behavioral therapy on libido disorder in men. The research method was semi-experimental with a pre-test and post-test design. The statistical population of the present study consisted of all men who suffered from the problem of decreased libido and for this purpose, they referred to medical centers in Tabriz city and received the diagnosis of decreased libido disorder. The research sample included 30 men who had the problem of decreased sexual desire and were randomly selected in three groups including the first experimental group (tDCS), the second experimental group (CBT) and the control group. Halbert's test was used to collect data. Single-variable covariance analysis was used for statistical analysis using SPSS-26 software. The results of the analysis showed that both treatment methods are effective in the dependent variable (decrease of sexual desire disorder). Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        10 - The Mediating Role of Psychological Distress in the Relationship between Inferential Confusion and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms
        Zahra Khosravi Roubiat Mahmoud  Najafi
        The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress) in the relationship between inferential confusion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The research method was descriptive-correlational (path More
        The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress) in the relationship between inferential confusion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The research method was descriptive-correlational (path analysis) and the statistical population of the study was all Social network users (between 20 to 50 years old) in mashhad in year 2022. Using the available sampling method, 345 subjects participated in the research through an online survey. The instruments used in this study include Obsessive-Compulsive Insentory-Revised (OCI-R), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and Inferential Confusion Questionnaire (ICQ-EV). Data analysis done through Pearson correlation coefficient and path analysis. The findings showed that inferential confusion has a direct and significant relationship with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Also, psychological distress had a mediating role in the relationship between inferential confusion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the model has a good fit. According to the research results and the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationship between inferential confusion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, In condition of high psychological distress, the relation of inferential confusion with obsessive-compulsive symptoms is stronger than when the components of depression, anxiety and stress are low. Also, planning to reduce psychological distress can be effective in reducing the effect of inferential confusion on obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        11 - The role of physical health and psychological pain in the prediction of suicide attempt: mediating factor of distress tolerance and self-directed aggression
        Fateme Habibi Isaac Rahimian Boogar,
        The aim of this study was to test the structural model of physical health and psychological pain with suicide with the mediating role of distress tolerance and self-directed aggression. The research method was descriptive-correlational (structural equation model) and Th More
        The aim of this study was to test the structural model of physical health and psychological pain with suicide with the mediating role of distress tolerance and self-directed aggression. The research method was descriptive-correlational (structural equation model) and The participants were selected of people living in Tehran and Alborz province in the age range of 18-50 years during the period of winter 1400 to summer 1401. Using the available sampling method, 400 subjects participated in the research through an online survey. The instruments used in this study include Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36), Mental Pain Scale (OMMP), Distress Tolerane Scale (DTS), Self-Harm Inventory (SHI) and Suicide probability scale (SPS). Data analysis done through Multiple regression method and structural equation modeling. The findings showed that physical health and psychological pain had a direct and significant relationship with suicide attempts. Also, distress tolerance and self-directed aggression had a mediating role in the relationship between physical health and psychological pain and suicide attempts. findings showed that the model has an acceptable fit with the collected data. According to the research results, regarding to distress tolerance and self-directed aggression can be effective on the relationship of physical health and psychological pain with suicide attempt. Manuscript profile